Global Warming

Palm oil threat to Orangutans

Plantations in Indonesia are robbing them of their natural habitat and harming the environment


The world’s forests are disappearing at the rate of one football-pitch per second and flying in over Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), the numerous plumes of smoke, leaving their blackened scars on the patchwork quilt of felled trees and naked land below, are testament to that fact. Once an area of prolific tropical rain forests, almost half of Indonesia’s 22.5 million hectares of peatland have already been deforested and drained — ecologically rich terrain replaced by endless regimented rows of nutrient sapping palm oil. In 2008 the Guinness Book of Records gave Indonesia the dubious accolade of the country with the fastest rate of deforestation, caused by legal and illegal logging, forest fires, mining, settlements, slash-and-burn farming methods, road mapping and the huge expansion of palm oil plantations. A problem that is particularly prolific on the island of Kalimantan, the third largest island in the world, where in recent years some six million hectares (roughly six million rugby pitches) of rainforest have been destroyed, primarily to make way for the misguided panacea to Indonesia’s social woes: palm oil.

Seen as a driver to ease small-scale farmers out of the poverty cycle and ultimately boost Indonesia’s economy, the oil that can be found in every other supermarket product, from popular chocolates and family-favourite cereals to common soaps and trendy cosmetics, is now heavily linked to highly unsustainable deforestation, and decimation of some of the world’s most threatened species, including the highly intelligent Orangutan. “The effect of palm oil on the orangutan population is devastating,” says Marie Gale from Save Indonesian Endangered Species (SIES), “and it’s not just the orangutans, it’s the loss of forest, the loss of biodiversity, and ultimately the loss of all the species, such as monkeys, sun bears, leopards, and birds. Their habitat is being encroached and consequently they are being forced to cohabit in a very small environment.” Native solely to Indonesia and Malaysia, orangutans are now only found in the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra, where satellite images show that they have lost as much as 80 per cent of their natural habitat over the past two decades. It is estimated that there are about 40,000 orangutans remaining on the two Indonesian islands, down from 230,000 throughout Southeast Asia a century ago. The species has come under serious threat of extinction due to innumerable reasons, from poaching and habitat destruction to the illegal pet trade. However, the surging global demand for palm oil and the consequent degradation of the rainforest is proving, by far, to be the most destructive.


Palm oil — a household name

Capable of producing up to ten times more oil than any other crop, oil palm has sparked a boom in the country’s economy. The oil that uniquely remains solid at room temperature is an invaluable ingredient in up to 50 per cent of consumer goods, primarily processed foods. However, more recently, it has gained even more popularity as a “green” biofuel. Its versatility dictates its acceptance and as much as 50 million tonnes are now produced each year for the world market, with Indonesia and Malaysia accounting for 90 per cent of this production. With global consumption expected to rise more than 30 per cent in the next decade, it comes as no surprise that Indonesia’s government plans to increase production to 40 million tonnes by 2020 — good news for the economy, bad news for orangutans and their habitat. “We need to be careful not to make people scared to consume palm oil, though,” explains Bustar Maitar, head of Indonesian Forestry Campaign for Greenpeace. “We don’t want to position it as a bad product because it has a key role to play in terms of Indonesia’s economic development but we need to challenge companies to adopt a zero deforestation policy to produce sustainable palm oil.” Kalimantan has about ten million hectares of palm plantations today and as next year’s elections loom, more concessions are being handed out by local officials at alarming rates. “On one side, the government’s efforts to fulfil democracy by giving authority to district and provincial levels is good,” explains Maitar, “but it [palm oil] is also the cause of decentralisation and now, as elections approach, our experience shows that in order to get quick support from powerful businessmen, there is an increase in the amount of forest areas that are given away for concessions … The natural-resources sector, especially forests, is like an ATM machine for the political parties and this is something that needs to be stopped.” Most recently, a decree was issued allowing a slice of Tanjung Puting National Park in central Kalimantan, the largest protected area of tropical heath and peat swamp forest in Southeast Asia, to be cleared for palm oil by a local company BGA (through its subsidiary PT Andalan Sukses Makmur — PT ASM). Another 12,000 hectares, where environmentalists have been planting saplings in an attempt at reforestation, is to be cleared. Officials say it is providing thousands of poor Indonesians with income and employment, but NGOs complain that too many companies do not follow the law or codes of practice. “There are rules and regulations in place and they are supposed to carry out environmental assessments,” says SIES’s Gale, “but when they looked at this latest concession, they didn’t find anything of concern. The plantation companies are also supposed to get a permit to start excavation but they have already started excavating and we still haven’t seen that permit.”


These are fruit-rich lowland areas close to rivers and peat swamp forests, environments that are favoured both by orangutans but also by palm-oil companies. For the palm oil to grow effectively in the tropics soil, however, farmers must use slash-and-burn techniques, salvaging the available timber before setting the remaining scrub on fire to clear the land for seedlings. Often the burning is uncontrolled, spreading to neighbouring forest and in the dry months of June to September, when most farmers carry out land clearing, major fire outbreaks are not uncommon. The WWF (World Wildlife Fund) has used satellite images to prove that commercial development, especially palm plantations, was the largest single cause of the 1997-98 fire, a blaze that destroyed some 9.7 million hectares of land, causing damages worth more than $9 billion and killing more than 8,000 Bornean orangutans. This year, the prolonged El Nino meant fires engulfed Sumatra and east Kalimantan for nine months, and smoke was a hazard as far away as Singapore and Malaysia. Indonesia’s president was forced to apologise after the fires led to Singapore’s worst environmental crisis in ten years and forced 200 schools to close in Malaysia. Many studies indicate that oil palm expansion is partly responsible for wildfires, Lisa Curran, project leader of a Stanford and Yale universities-led study, said in a press release, “These plantation leases are an unprecedented ‘grand-scale experiment’ replacing forests with exotic palm monocultures. We may see tipping points in forest conversion where critical biophysical functions are disrupted, leaving the region increasingly vulnerable to droughts, fires, and floods.” It is a disturbing forecast given this year alone saw thousands of hectares of biodiversity destroyed through deforestation, consequently releasing unparalleled amounts of CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. Perhaps this is why Indonesia is the third largest emitter of greenhouses gases in the world, after the United States and China.


Knock-on effects

The irresponsible slash-and-burn farming in the pursuit of profits not only decimates vast swaths of forest leading to environmental damage, but razes the natural habitat of orangutans. As their rainforest home is destroyed, the arboreal creatures have no more trees on which they can travel, and so are forced to escape burning land by foot. Not being natural ground travellers, they are often too slow for the flames and are ultimately burnt to death. Those that survive find they have nowhere left to go, and are forced into narrow corridors of forest with limited amount of food. Consequently, they are drawn to raid crops and village gardens. The past few years have seen several headlines involving palm-oil workers hunting down orangutans, now seen as pests in farmland. Some conservationists have reports of the large apes being hacked to death with machetes, while others have been gunned down, or fatally beaten. “About 1 kilometre inland from the Sekonyer River, the palm oil plantations begin,” explains Basuki Santoso, general manager of the Friends of the National Parks Foundation (FNPF). “There are so many orangutans in this small area of land and because there is not enough room for them, they go to the palm oil plantations where they are often shot and killed. Now even this small area of land they had left has just been given away for more palm oil.” The plantations not only destroy their homes, forcing them into small isolated patches of remaining rainforest, but also deplete their food stocks. Often the great apes are found emaciated, on the brink of starvation. Earlier this year, the Indonesian arm of the charity International Animal Rescue (IAR) saved four starving orangutans from an oil palm plantation — belonging to a company that is a member of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). Karmele Llano Sanchez, executive director of IAR Indonesia, said in a press release: “We were appalled at the condition of these orangutans. All of them had gone through long periods of starvation before we rescued them. The area where they were found, since the company had cleared most of the forest, was too small to provide them with sufficient food.” The IAR, which then airlifted the starving primates to an area of forest with enough food, discovered that despite laws preventing palm oil concessions that deprive orangutans and other endangered species of their habitat and food, the orangutans had been forced into eating tree bark because there were so little leaves available. Images of a lone orangutan hanging to a single tree left in hectares of bulldozed land had conservationists crying out and the IAR urged the company, Bumitama Gunajaya Agro (BGA), to stop any more intended land clearing on the borders of the Gunung Palung National Park, an area which is home to one of the largest populations of Bornean orangutans. Although this time the starving orangutans were brought to the attention of the IAR by the palm oil managers, it is rumoured many are killed before a handful are reported, while often it is the mothers that are killed so their offspring can be sold illegally as pets. According to the WWF, studies have indicated that 200 to 500 orangutans from Indonesian Borneo alone enter the pet trade each year. With each carrying a price tag of as much as $30,000 (Dh110,189), it is lucrative business. Naturally, due to poor care and hygiene, injury from falling from trees after their mother is shot, or the trauma of seeing their mother killed, most baby orangutans do not survive their first year, and it is believed that for every orangutan that does survive, six to eight would have died.

In the palm of their hands

Despite laws designed to protect the species, much of the struggle seems to depend on charities and volunteer conservationists. But despite best efforts, the hands of many charitable organisations are tied. Palm oil has pushed up the price of local land and now, any charity wishing to buy land for reforestation purposes is faced with prices of between $500 and $1000 a hectare — an unfeasible sum for small-scale conservationists. Others find that land they have worked hard to reforest has fallen prey to concessions. “Friends of the National Parks Foundation, together with the local community, have planted 150,000 rainforest trees across a 300-hectare area that was previously within the National Park boundaries,” Gale explains. “After years of hard work, collecting seedlings, raising them and then replanting, they are devastated that all their hard work to create urgently needed forest for orangutans, monkeys, sunbears and others is about to be bulldozed for palm oil.” Charities forced into a corner are, therefore, focusing efforts on dissuading villagers from plantation employment. With 44 per cent of central Kalimantan’s population relying directly on palm oil for their livelihoods, it is not easy. Many villagers will agree to cultivate their land with the promise of $3,000 yields. However, what they fail to understand is that the benefits are short-term, that oil palm plants only have a 25-year lifespan, and many villagers end up getting themselves into a debt cycle with the companies. “PT Bumitama Agri, who are responsible for the expansion of palm oil into the Tanjung Puting National Park and the sensitive buffer zone, have focused on getting local villagers to support them with the lure of easy money,” Gale says. “Sadly, experiences elsewhere show that these are hollow promises.” SIES, along with FNPF, is, therefore, trying to educate communities and provide villagers with alternative viable income sources. Their focus is on providing financial security to the residents and protecting their land from takeover through eco-tourism, agroforestry and organic farming. Recently they funded a community cattle and organic produce farm providing cows to those villagers who opted not to work with the palm oil industry. It is an all-round approach. “We can’t protect the area if the people aren’t safe,” says Santoso, “so we must give them education and income. We don’t just talk about orangutans and reforestation; we have to take care of all the aspects to teach people about conserving our land.”


Sustainable palm oil?

Although conservationists are doing their best to protect the area, efforts are also being made to try and regulate the high-street palm oil industry at national governance level. RSPO was set up in 2001 with the aim of creating a body that could set criteria for greener palm oil production. However, despite its formation, forest destruction has continued unabated. “Ostensibly they are all under an umbrella to follow sustainable practice,” Gale says. “They aren’t allowed to cultivate palm oil in national parks. They can’t cut down high-conservation forest or destroy wildlife. However the RSPO needs to enforce its Principles and Criteria (2013), particularly the criteria, to conserve biodiversity and comply with laws.” A recent report by Greenpeace, “Certifying Destruction”, revealed that a few of the RSPO members were flagrantly flouting laws by continuing to buy or trade palm oil produced via the conversion of rain forests and carbon-dense peatlands. “A lot of [RSPO] members are actively carrying out deforestation,” says Greenpeace’s Maitar, “which is ironic as they are meant to be complying with standards when they expand their plantations. Becoming a member for some is just a PR exercise, and one of our biggest challenges is how to change that behaviour.” Another key move in conservation efforts was brokered in 2011 by the Indonesia-Norway $1 billion REDD deal, under which Norway promised to pay Indonesia $1 billion to protect its remaining rainforests and peatlands. Central Kalimantan became the pilot province, with President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono placing a two-year moratorium on new logging permits. However, the loophole was that the deal did not apply to existing concessions, only virgin rainforest. Norway has so far only handed over a small sum of the pledged money, as it was a performance-based deal.


Apart from the big players, orangutans are ultimately at the mercy of uninformed consumers. Palm oil is a consumer-driven problem and raising awareness among the everyday shoppers is key. Today, the majority of consumers have no idea that their washing liquid, hand soap, favourite cookies and breakfast cereals contain such an environmentally damaging product. “The supply chain is very complex,” Gale says. “It goes to a very broad market — of soaps and shampoos — but there are no labelling laws yet … There needs to be clear labelling in all products so that consumers throughout the world can make informed choices about purchases.” At present, producers are able to group oils under the one umbrella term “vegetable oil”, but thanks to the constant efforts of conservationists, from December 2014 onwards, food producers will be obliged to mention palm oil, giving customers the choice that the orangutans do not have. It seems the small drops are finally making an ocean and the world’s attention is being drawn. As Maitar says, “We are challenging the market to have strong policies on no deforestation and a couple of big corporations have made this happen. Nestlé and Unilever have now committed to sourcing palm oil responsibly produced by companies. If they can make that commitment, other companies can do the same.”

By Anthea Ayache
 | Weekend Review ( 21:30 November 21, 2013

Categories: Biodiversity, conservation, Environmental Pollution, Global Warming, Species Extinction | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Food For Thought: I am prepared to take risks – whenever I board an aeroplane for example. Are risks from the climate more immediate?



  I am prepared to take risks – whenever I board an aeroplane for example. Are risks from the climate more immediate ?  


 Professor Rajendra Pachauri puts it starkly: “If there is no action before 2012, that’s too late.What we do in the next two or three years will determine our future. This is the defining moment.” First let’s look at what might happen if temperatures exceed 2 degrees Celsius, the broadly accepted danger zone.

The UK Meteorological Office warns that a rise above 2 degrees Celsius will cause  havoc, with up to two-thirds of the world affected by water scarcity, major losses in agricultural productivity (grain reserves are already at a record low) and the loss of many ecosystems. With a 3 degrees celsius rise the Amazon rainforest would collapse and most coral reefs would almost certainly die, the oceans would become more acidic and less able to absorb carbon dioxide. The knock-on effects from these changes are unimaginable. And if runaway warming kicks in after a tipping point is reached we can kiss goodbye to civilisation. It’s that serious.

Stern said that concentrations were 430pm CO2e by extracting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, Stern’s diagram shows there is a five per cent chance that temperatures would increase by almost 3 degrees celsius above pre-industrial levels. In the light of the awful effects outlined above it is appropriate to ask: would you board an aeroplane if you knew it had a five per cent chance of crashing?

At 450ppmCo2e the Stern Review gives a 50 per cent chance that temperatures will reach 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and a five per cent chance that they will climb to 3.8 degrees Celsius. At 550pmCO2e, the target adopted by the Review, the diagram shows a 50 per cent chance that temperatures will reach 3 degrees celsius and a five per cent chance that they could soar to 4.7 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

Sir Nicholas Stern is an environmental economist. his discipline requires him to assume that our economy is sacrosanct and to explore what it can afford to spend on environmental issues.

Ecological economists invert the question. They see the human economy as just one component within the planet’s ecology and ask what limits are imposed on economic activity by the environment. They say that you cannot extrapolate from past events because natural systems frequently tip from one stable state into another. We already over-exploit the world’s resources, and all our efforts should now go into repairing the damage and learning to live within the Earth’s systems before it is too late. ”

Alastair Sawday (2008: 12-14) What About China?

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Today’s Advice: Plant a tree.


” Eight thousand years ago, when human beings settled and began to grow crops, half the planet’s land mass was covered in thick forest. Today, less than a third is still forested. Worldwide, over the last 10 years, forest cover has been reduced by 2.4%. In order to live, all plants on the planet release oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide. Two acres of mature forest absorb the equivalent of the carbon emissions from 100 midsize cars over a period of a year.

Plant a tree: You will be joining the fight against global warming and the atmospheric pollution caused by carbon dioxide emissions “.

-Abrams, “365 Ways To Save The Earth”, 2008

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Food For Thought: Global warming is a natural phenomenon – look at the ice ages. Where is the evidence that human impact plays a part?


  Global warming is a natural phenomenon – look at the ice ages. Where is the evidence that human impact plays a part?  


” Global temperatures have varied in step with carbon concentrations in the atmosphere, and these concentrations have suddenly shot up way above anything experienced over the past half million years. Human activity is the only explanation for this sudden surge.

Climate scientists talk about temperature, greenhouse gas concentrations and emissions. To understand what they are saying you must be prepared to study figures, think bout probability and allow for scientific complexity being reduced to media simplicities.

First: temperature. There is broad consensus that global temperatures should not be allowed to rise more than 2 C above pre-industrial levels, although Professor Rajendra Pauchauri, head of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) with its 2500 climate scientists, now says that 1.5 C would be more appropriate. Land-based temperatures have already risen 0.8 C, and current levels of emissions in the atmosphere commit us to a rise of 1.3 C due to the time lag between cause and effect. The biggest danger is runaway global warming. For example, if the area of arctic ice reduces there is more dark water to absorb heat from the Sun. This, in turn, causes more ice to melt – exposing more dark water – causing more melt – more dark water – more melt. This is a chain reaction that could cause temperature to rise without any further help from us.

Second: greenhouse gas concentrations. The Stern Review (2006) stated that greenhouse gas concentrations at the time it was written were at 430ppm CO2e (parts per million of carbon dioxide equivalent). A figure of 382ppm is sometimes mentioned but this does not include methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Before the industrial revolution the figure was 280ppm. According to the Stern Review, “stabilisation at 450ppmCO2e is almost out of reach, given that we are likely to reach this level in ten years”. It therefore set a target for stabilising at 550ppmCO2e.

Third: Emissions. Despite the Kyoto Protocol (adopted in 1997), emissions have been rising at an ever-increasing rate. In 2006 James Hansen, who heads the US NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, said: “A global tipping point will be reached in ten years if levels of greenhouse gases are not reduced. Global warming at this point becomes unstoppable.” The prestigious Tyndall Centre for Climate Change, in a 2006 report ‘Living Within a Carbon budget’, said that a 90 percent cut in UK greenhouse gas emissions, including those from shipping and airlines, is needed by 2050, adding that emissions must reduce by “an unprecedented nine per cent a year from 2010 for up to 20 years”. With this sort of reduction oil refineries would no longer be viable, so we would be moving to a carbon-free economy.

What about sea levels? Greenland is the size of France and Spain combined and mostly covered with ice two kilometres (km) deep. Melt-water is dropping down crevasses and lubricating the base so that glaciers are sliding into the sea faster than anticipated. It was predicted that Greenland would lose 80km3 of ice in 2006. NASA’s Grace satellite showed that it actually oat 287km3 that year.If greenhouse gas emissions are not stabilised within a decade, sea levels could rise several metres before the end of this century.”

Alastair Sawday (2008: 11-12) What About China?

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Today’s Advice: Recycle your old refrigerator.

fridge freezer graveyard

A 2-mile-long ice core sample taken from Antarctica has shown that the levels of heat-trapping greenhouse gases are higher now than at any time in the last 420,000 years. The heat that these gases trap will cause sea levels to rise by about 3 feet, among other things. The agents responsible include coolant gases such as Freon (a trade name of the infamous CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons), which are contained in the cooling circuits of old refrigerators, freezers, and air-conditioners. The formidable greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere when those appliances leak or are dumped.

More than 8 million refrigerators are disposed of every year in the United States. Take your old refrigerator to a facility where it will be dealt with properly, or ask your public works department how to dispose of it correctly.

-Abrams, “365 Ways To Save The Earth”, 2008

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Water Proof infrastructure, is our only hope, to survive this century


Nature cannot speak, it cannot express its feelings, thus it cannot act as a witness. It either lives or dies, and if it rages, it destroys. Global warming and its causes is a crime, which tortures each and every corner of our planet day after day. However, we as human beings, always seem to forget that we are part of this planet, and if the planet is in pain, we are in pain. It is a natural notion of our existence, which is, however we treat something, it will treat us back the same way. This same concept applies to our planet as well, because we have been treating it unfairly, thus we are being punished.

I couldn’t stop admiring the fascinating special effects that caught my attention in the movie Journey 2: The Mysterious Island, it was mesmerizing to witness how the Mysterious island was drowning and being swallowed by the ocean brutally. The velocity at which the water was continuously destroying the island was horrendous. Non the less, the ancient inhabitants of the island had foreseen this catastrophe, which they probably knew, was inevitable. Accordingly, they had planned to have an underwater stationed submarine, their only hope for survival.

Glaciers are melting rapidly, rising sea levels gradually at a frightening rate. It is a concerning reality which is inevitable, and preventing it is a losing debate among environmentalists and scientists. Recent studies on rising sea levels have discovered that, the effect of this natural disaster won’t only go about flooding beaches and cities close to coastal areas, but it can also corrode building foundations  from below that can fall prey to such disastrous events. Furthermore, Researchers suspect that sea level could rise more than six feet by this century’s finale. It is indeed a scary measure, which must trigger high alerts to all real estate developers, warning them that negligence to climate change is not an option anymore, and that the time has arrived to start investing and planning to build innovative, Water proof solutions to survive this century.

In conclusion, it is such a tragedy to see some politicians losing confidence in sustainable solutions, hence they aren’t willing to invest in new innovative green technology for protecting the future of their people, they strongly believe that people are not the source of this catastrophe, and that the possibility of a mythical disaster cannot possibly be true. We are truly living at very critical times, where anti-environmentalists are winning a lost war on Global warming. Governments & Businesses must be protested against their routine anti-environmental economic activities, they are guilty of a crime, one which does not have a clearly defined evidence, neither does it have a clear witness to prove its guiltiness.

Do you think water resistant infrastructure is the way to the future?

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The Weather Channel

Does any one of you follow weather forecasts anymore? I don’t, so I just wanted to know if you do. Whats funny is that, I just discovered a channel that is completely dedicated to weather news/forecasts and it has a website as well, its called ‘The Weather Channel’. I’m sorry did I just hear you say that you already KNOW about this channel, well then I guess I’m too far behind for not knowing about it.

Personally without disrespect to other people, I don’t even remember when was the last time I even bothered taking a minute of my time checking the news for weather forecasts, I’m assuming it was before google most probably. Did you just hear what I just said, I said the last time I actually BOTHERED following the weather forecast, bothered means the last time I opened the TV with the least intention to not change the channel during the weather forecast news.


Anyway, the point that I’m trying to reach here is that, the way we’ve been treating weather forecasts, looking at it as a means to buy tanning products, umbrellas or skiing gears won’t stay for long, from the Global warming changes that are occurring nowadays and will probably continue in the future, we should start educating ourselves by trying to understand the patterns and trends of changing weathers day after day, month after month and year after year. And the only way to learn that is by consistently following weather forecasts in a very disciplined manner and trying to understand how the changes are happening in various parts of the world and how can changes in weather in other parts of the world affect your country or city. No this isn’t only the job of weather forecasters, scientists or researchers, everyone should be his own researcher from now onwards.


For all those people who don’t care to switch on the weather channel to watch a 2 minutes weather forecast highlights, and would rather prefer to go through sports highlights, be prepared to taste bitterness, because sometime in the near future, the weather channel will be the first channel we will subscribe for or prolly MUST subscribe, and weather forecasts will be the first updated information we would want to acquire as we wake up from sleep in the morning.

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People of Earth, any last wishes before mission Oblivion?

No, this isn’t the prequel of cruise’s latest sci fi “Oblivion”, although the movie does leave many crucial Environmental messages to the audiences, for those who have already watched the movie will know what I’m referring to.

Unlike other previous greedy civilizations which raced to territorial expansion and other personal gains, this is the first civilization ever whose mission for more and more economic growth is on the verge of destroying planet earth.

I’ve discovered something new recently, a kind of knowledge that was already there for many years and global warming scientists are well aware of it but unfortunately this is the first time that it has come to my attention. Unless you are a science freak or someone who has read a lot about global warming in general might probably have heard or read somewhere that CO2 (Carbon dioxide concentration) levels have almost reached the mark of 400 ppm (parts per million).

Your question would most probably be what is ppm? Now I know most of you out there aren’t into chemistry or physics, as you can see I myself am not able to remember if CO2 was taught to me during chemistry classes or physics, most probably chemistry I think, please correct me if I’m wrong, either way it doesn’t really matter at this moment of time. I’ll make it easier for you to understand in a simple way, according to  Joe Romm’s blog post on which is based on a research done by Jonathan G. Koomey


CO2 levels for the past 12,000 years (a study done via Koomey)

It’s interesting to know that for approximately 12,000 years the CO2 concentration was at a static unchanged level of around 250-300 ppm (parts per million), but whats frightening is the fact that since the start of the 20th century (1900) it started going beyond 300 ppm and constantly increasing to the current level of approximately 400 ppm.

This technically means that for the first time in human history a 100 ppm has increased in only a century.

It is important to bring to everyone’s attention that this is not another movie on Global warming, or my attempt to include this post in the latest issue of National geographic or time magazine, no my fellow readers, this my dear friends is A REAL FACT which requires A REAL SOLUTION in order to avoid A REAL AND SAD TRAGEDY.

I rest my case 😐

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